A method to suppress premature stop codons in order to generate full-length mRNA using target-specific guide RNAs.
Problem Solved by the Technology
A disease-modifying therapy for conditions caused by nonsense mutations, such as Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophies and cystic fibrosis has long been sought, but to date none has been found. A few therapies at various clinical phases of development address the already-mutated RNA strands, or simply ameliorate the symptoms of the diseases.
Researchers at the University of Rochester have developed a method for the site-specific conversion of a target uridine within an RNA chain into a pseudouridine through the introduction of a target-specific guide RNA into the cells. Guide RNAs can be conveniently designed, and remain stable in vivo throughout the lifetime of the cells. Remarkably, uridine-to-pseudouridine conversion within a stop codon of an mRNA results in ribosome read-through (or nonsense supression) and generates full-length mRNAs. Thus, this method can be applied to target premature termination codons within mRNA (e.g.: dystrophin mRNA), thereby promoting nonsense suppression and leading to the production of full-length, functional proteins.
Chen, C., Zhao, X., Kierzek, R. and Yu, Y.-T. (2010) "A flexible RNA backbone within the polypyrimidine tract is required for U2AF65 binding and pre-mRNA splicing in vivo." Mol Cell Biol. 30, 4108-19. PMID: 20606010.
Karijolich, J. and Yu, Y.-T. (2011) "Converting nonsense codons into sense codons by targeted pseudouridylation." Nature, 474, 395-398.
[This paper was highlighted in Nature by a News & Views commentary (Adrian R. Ferre-D’Amare, 2011, "Stop the nonsense." Nature, 474, 289-290), in Nature Chemical Biology as an editors’ choice from recent literature (TLS, 2011, Translation: "A pseudogenetic code." Nature Chemical Biology, 7, 496-497), and in many other journals, news papers, and magazines as well.]
Fernandez, I. S., Ng, C. L., Kelley, A. C., Wu, G., Yu, Y.-T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2013) "Unusual base pairing during the recoding of a stop codon containing pseudouridine." Nature, 500, 107-110.
URV Reference Number: 6-1446